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SFMC SQL Numeric Functions

Take control over numbers with built-in SQL functions. Let the query do the job.

Salesforce Marketing Cloud SQL implementation does not support user-defined functions. There are, however, multiple built-in functions that are useful on a day-to-day basis when working with queries.

Here, I will cover only selected numeric functions that I find most useful for Marketing Automation purposes. They will help you do the necessary calculations or format the numbers to match your needs.


MIN and MAX functions allow you to find the minimum and maximum values of column(s) in the selected data extension.

What is your highest subscriber bounce count?
SELECT MAX(s.BounceCount) AS HighestBounceCount
FROM _Subscribers AS s

Will you use it frequently? Probably not. Is it useless? Oh no.

Let's say you have a data extension storing information about a competition - including the number of points that participants gathered. Now it is time to send congratulations to the winner. MAX function will make it easy.

Get a Subscriber Key and Points of all the customers that have the biggest amount of points
, comp.CompetitionPoints
FROM CompetitionDataExtension AS comp
comp.CompetitionPoints = (
SELECT MAX(comp2.CompetitionPoints)
FROM CompetitionDataExtension AS comp2

However, my favourite use case for MAX is debugging Data Extensions and their values. Especially useful when working with data imports from external systems — for example, pulling data from Sales Cloud via Marketing Cloud Connect.

You might frequently encounter a situation where your automations responsible for moving data from Synchronized Data Extensions to standard Data Extensions crashes with cryptic information about truncated data. In most cases, the reason is a value exceeding the maximum length you set for the column in your local Data Extension.

How to find the culprit? With MAX and LEN functions:

For Datetime values, it will output 19 characters
MAX(LEN(c.Id)) AS SubscriberKey
, MAX(LEN(c.Email)) AS EmailAddress
/* Rest of the Contact fields you synchronized from Contact object */
FROM Contact_Salesforce AS c

This query can be used ad hoc in Query Studio to quickly show your current maximum lengths of the values coming from Sales Cloud. Compare them to the length of your fields in the destination data extension to see which column is crashing your automation.

You can also extend it with WHERE containing current lengths of fields in that data extension and make it part of your automation. It will find the records too long for the data extension, log them into data extension and allow you to leverage Verification Activity to alert you about the issue. Nice and clean.

MAX and MIN are also instrumental as a part of an aggregate query.


The AVG function returns the average value in a given column (excluding NULL values).

What is your average subscriber bounce count?
SELECT AVG(s.BounceCount) AS AverageBounceCount
FROM _Subscribers AS s

The above example might not look like much value, but with the help of DATEDIFF and CONVERT functions you can make it much more interesting:

What is the average age of your Subscribers?
FROM _Subscribers

However, AVG shows its true power with WHERE filtering:

Let's get your above-average spenders for an e-commerce up-sell campaign
SELECT SubscriberKey
FROM Purchases
WHERE Price > AVG(Price)

You can mix two previous queries to create separate segments for your fresh and old subscribers.

AVG function is also beneficial as a part of an aggregate query.


The SUM function allows you to calculate the sum of values.

What is your total bounce count?
SELECT SUM(BounceCount) AS AllBouncesCount
FROM _Subscribers

It is helpful nearly only as a part of an aggregate query.

FORMAT with Numbers

The FORMAT works only with datetime and numeric values, outputs a string and requires:

  1. Value to be formatted (can be a column, string or function)
  2. Format specifier to be applied
  3. Optionally - ISO culture code

It is a perfect tool to manipulate any numbers (or numeric strings with the help of conversion) available in your Data Extensions.

Standard number formats

Standard formats use one required and one optional element.

The required one is the format specifier - which tells what the outcome should be. The optional is precision - it allows you to change the value on the go (for example, round it to two decimal places). If you do not use precision, the value will stay with its current precision.

Precision might lead to rounding. Note also the US thousands separator
FORMAT(1234.56, 'N') AS WithoutCustomPrecision /* Output: 1,234.56 */
, FORMAT(1234.56, 'N1') AS RoundedWithCustomPrecision /* Output: 1,234.6 */

There are nine standard formats available, but only a few are useful on a day-to-day basis in Salesforce Marketing Cloud:

Format specifierDescriptionExample (for US culture)Comment
'C'/'c'Currency$1,234.56You can pass a culture code as a third argument to format the value straight to needed currency (including currency symbol and appropriate separators)
'D'/'d'Decimal1235Support integers only. Precision enforces a minimum number of digits (great for adding leading zeroes)
'N'/'n'Number1,234.56Precision enforces a number of decimal places. You can pass a culture code as a third argument to format the value to country-specific notation
'P'/'p'Percent12.34 %Precision enforces a number of decimal places. You can pass a culture code as a third argument to format the value to country-specific notation

Just as highlighted in the table header - the examples are for the SFMC default US culture formating.

You can find the complete list of standard date format specifiers on Microsoft .Net Doc Pages.

Custom number formats

Of course, the formats shown above are not the limit of what you can do. Whenever you want something different, you can create a custom format by just providing a pattern:

Format specifierDescriptionComments
'0'Zero placeholderReplaces the zero with the digit if available; otherwise, zero appears in the result string.
'#'Number placeholderReplaces the zero with the digit if available; otherwise, no number appears in the result string. It also ignores not significant zeroes (like leading ones)
'.'Leading pointInforms the format function about desired decimal separator place
'%'Percentage placeholderMultiplies the number by 100 and inserts per cent sign in the selected place
''Escape characterAllows you to escape any format specifier symbol if you want it literally in the outcome
'string'/"string"String literalPasses the string straight to the outcome
';'Section separatorAllows you to pass different custom formats for positive, zero and negative values

Again, the examples are for the default US culture formatting and might look different for different cultures (for example, hour separator might be changed automatically to . for Italy).

You can find the complete list of standard date format specifiers on Microsoft .Net Doc Pages.

The custom number formats can do wonders for your personalization needs. Example? Sure!

Let's say you want your customers to validate their phone numbers before you leverage the SMS channel. You have them in Mobile Connect compliant format (only digits, no spaces, country code included). 48520935815 is not a very user-friendly format to validate. Let's fix it:

From '48520935815' to '(48) 520 935 815' in one line
, FORMAT(CONVERT(BIGINT, ea.MobileNumber), '(###) ### ### ###') AS FormattedPhone /* Output: (48) 520 935 815 */
FROM _Subscribers AS s
INNER JOIN EnterpriseAttribute AS ea
ON ea._SubscriberID = s.SubscriberID

As you can see, we had to use the CONVERT function with the BIGINT parameter, as the MobileNumber is a Text field. Thanks to conversion, we can use numeric functions to format it quickly. It could get even better with LIKE in CASE used to create different formats depending on the country code.

Another use case? Let's assume we have a VIPDiscount field. It contains a number between 0.00 and 0.99 that tells what discount is appropriate for the selected user based on their VIP status. You store it in decimal numeric because it is a much more accessible format for SSJS or AMPScript to calculate the final price of items promoted in communication.

However, showing the customer that he has a 0.33 discount is not a good idea. FORMAT can help us once more:

Depending on your needs you may use Standard format or a Custom one
FORMAT(VIPDiscount, 'P') AS StandardFormattedVIPDiscount /* Output: 33.00 % */
, FORMAT(VIPDiscount, '-00.##%') AS CustomFormattedVIPDiscount /* Output: -33% */